Woman in Gold & Operation Anthropoid
What do they have in common? There are places where history went through, yet they have been forgotten—small village Panenske Brezany near Prague. The fates of two prominent first-republic Jewish entrepreneurs, Ferdinand Bloch Bauer and Friedrich Gerstel, were connected with this place as well as two nazi criminals, Karl Herman Frank and Reinhard Heydrich, are inseparably linked to the this site. We will take you to places where Adele Bloch Bauer spent her summer times and where few years later, Reinhard Heydrich lived with his family while serving as Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia.
Some of the sites you'll visit...
During the WWII the Jewish property was confiscated by the Nazis and the The Upper Chateau became a home to the State Minister later Protectorate Secretary of State Karl Hermann Frank – the main initiator of the Lidice massacre. Today’s Memorial of National Oppression and Resistance.
Czechoslovak soldiers Jan Kubis and Jozef Gabčík attacked Heydrich on May 27th 1942 while he was en route from his residence – the Lower Chateau of Panenske Brezany to Prague. He died of his injuries a week later.
In June 1942 the village Lidice was destroyed in retaliation for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich…men were shot, women transported to Ravensbruck and most of the children gassed in Chelmno.
After the Nazi occupation of the Czech lands a resistence movement began to form. In the spirit of legionary traditions, some of the former members of army fled the Protectorate to create a foreign army, some stayed at home preparing conditions for nationwide uprising.
In early January 1941 a "special operations" group was created in London and courses led by British instructors started for the in-depth preparation of soldiers who signed up. Josef Gabčík and Jan Kubiš joined in the summer 1941. Few weeks later Reichsprotector Reinhard Heydrich was sent to Prague. as Nazi Germany feared of the increasing activities of the Czech domestic resistence movement. Period of terror began. Within 4 months the martial law was in force with almost 500 death sentences imposed and 2200 arrested people sent to concentration camps. Obrana národa (Defence of the Nation) was almost dispersed. Czechoslovak government in London decided to respond resolutely.
The operation Anthropoid consisting of 2 agents was dispatched by parachute on the night of 28/29 December 1941. Sokol resistence movement proved to be absolutely crucial for this operation to succeed. On May 27, 1942 the mission has been dramatically accomplished – Hyedrich died on June 4th at the hospital as a result of his injuries.A huge repressions started, arrests and executions, which culminated in burning the village of Lidice.
Facts, Myths and FAQs
Why were Jews from Bohemia and Moravia before the WWII the leading financial and intellectual elite?
- Because more than 70% of all Austro-Hungarian industry was located in the Czech Kingdom. And the Jews have developed into industrialists.
- Jews in our countries spoke and wrote high-quality German, not Yiddish.
- from the Toleration Patent issued by Emperor Joseph II. (1781) Jews had compulsory school attendance and were allowed to study at universities, engage in crafts and trade.
Was it common for Jewish industrial families to support artists and artistic avant-garde?
- Certainly. As they were in their own way the avant-garde of the Jewish way of life.
- The Jews were mocked and humiliated by the majority society. That is why they were very sensitive to the mockery and misunderstanding of the majority towards artists and they recognize talent well.
Was it usual for Jews to buy Castles?
Yes, they bought Castles as well as peerages, as did the non-Jewish cream of society. They also had their houses and flats built by progressive, avant-garde architects. Unlike most non-Jewish industrialists. This trend persists today.